In the palmar surface of the hands and plantar surface of the feet, the skin is thicker than in the rest of the body and there is a fifth layer of epidermis. Thank you for subscribing! The eponychium helps to seal the edges of the nail to prevent infection of the underlying tissues. The integumentary system is the set of organs that forms the external covering of the body and protects it from many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault and radiation damage. Fungal infections include athletes foot, yeast infections and ringworm infections. The integumentary system includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails. Alveoli layer. Vasoconstriction permits the skin to cool while blood stays in the body’s core to maintain heat and circulation in the vital organs. The cells of the nail root and nail body are pushed toward the distal end of the finger or toe by new cells being formed in the nail matrix. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature. The integumentary system, or skin, is the largest organ in the body. This layer of the epidermis provides mechanical strength and rigidity to the structure of skin. Define integumentary system. At about 8% of epidermal cells, melanocytes form the second most numerous cell type in the epidermis. Skin forms the body’s outer covering and forms a barrier to protect the body from chemicals, disease, UV light, and physical damage. In the adult human body, the skin makes up about 16 percent of body weight and covers an area of 1.5 to 2 m 2. Alternatively, the skin also prevents the body from bloating in an hypotonic environment. The skin protects internal organs and other structures from injuries caused by friction, like scrapes or cuts. Being the body’s outermost organ, the skin is able to regulate the body’s temperature by controlling how the body interacts with its environment. In each of these layers, keratinocytes undergo successive steps in differentiation beginning with the proliferative layer in the innermost stratum basale containing keratinocyte stem cells. Besides the skin, it comprises the hair and nails as well, which are appendages of the skin. As the follicle produces new hair, the cells in the root push up to the surface until they exit the skin. Integumentary definition is - of or relating to an enveloping or external layer or covering (as of skin, hair, scales, feathers, or cuticle) of an organism or one of its parts; especially : of, relating to, or affecting the skin : cutaneous. Innerbody Research does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. The Integumentary system refers to the body system consisting of the skin and its various attachments. Sweat, in contrast to sebum, is a water-based secretion, containing electrolytes – sodium salts, urea, and even trace amounts of uric acid. Example: The integumentary layers of … It also helps provide protection from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Around the proximal and lateral edges of the nail is the eponychium, a layer of epithelium that overlaps and covers the edge of the nail body. As the stem cells multiply, they push older keratinocytes towards the surface of the skin and into the superficial layers of the epidermis. Corpuscles of touch are structures found in the dermal papillae of the dermis that also detect touch by objects contacting the skin. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn. The stratum corneum is made of many rows of flattened, dead keratinocytes that protect the underlying layers. Tags: Topics: Question 14 . Biologydictionary.net Editors. The presence of many acids, such as lactic acid and acetic acid, makes sweat mildly acidic. They are usually seen with ring-shaped or scaly rashes, redness, itching, blisters or with the thickening of skin. integumentary system: ( in-teg'yū-ment ), [TA] 1. The dermis is the deep layer of the skin found under the epidermis. Dead keratinocytes are constantly being shed from the surface of the stratum corneum and being replaced by cells arriving from the deeper layers. TRY IT FOR FREE TODAY: https://3d4med.com/2CTR3lILearn the basics of the Integumentary System. The stratum basale and stratum spinosum layers of the epidermis contain a sterol molecule known as 7-dehydrocholesterol. There are 3 main parts of a nail: the root, body, and free edge. Finally, prolonged exposure to UV rays can result in sunburns or even skin cancer, especially in people with low melanin content in their skin. Within the dermis there are two distinct regions:  the papillary layer and the reticular layer. The structure of hair can be broken down into 3 major parts: the follicle, root, and shaft. Check all the main layers of the skin. Contains organs and glands that are vital to protecting the body and regulating temperature What is the largest organ? The spindle-shaped and tightly packed cortex cells contain pigments that give the hair its color. The few hairless parts of the body include the palmar surface of the hands, plantar surface of the feet, lips, labia minora, and glans penis. The integumentary system protects against many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault, and radiation damage. Sebaceous glands are found in every part of the skin except for the thick skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Vitamin D3 is converted in the kidneys into calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. When our skin is not exposed to sufficient amounts of sunlight, we can develop vitamin D deficiency, potentially leading to serious health concerns. Skin is the organ that covers the outer part of the human body. The epidermis is made of four layers – the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. These cells do not have a nucleus and contain copious amounts of keratin filaments. Biologydictionary.net, March 19, 2017. https://biologydictionary.net/integumentary-system/. The stem cells of the nail matrix reproduce to form keratinocytes, which in turn produce keratin protein and pack into tough sheets of hardened cells. Fungal infections of the skin are common especially in those regions where sweat and sebum collect for long periods of time, providing a rich environment for the growth of fungi. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Vitamin D, an essential vitamin necessary for the absorption of calcium from food, is produced by ultraviolet (UV) light striking the skin. The epidermis is an avascular region of the body, meaning that it does not contain any blood or blood vessels. Melanocytes in the epidermis produce the pigment melanin, which absorbs UV light before it can pass through the skin. The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. Sweat glands that excrete wastes and regulate body temperature are also part of the integumentary system. The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis and gives the skin its strength and elasticity. Sweat produced by eccrine sudoriferous glands normally contains mostly water with many electrolytes and a few other trace chemicals. After division, cells migrate outwards to form a layer of spiny cells called stratum spinosum. The cuticle is the outermost layer made of keratinocytes. In hot, dry environments, water is first lost from this layer. answer choices . Diseases of the integumentary system can arise from pathogenic infections, injury due to radiation, chemicals or from genetic disorders. The integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. The mildly acidic nature of skin secretions also contributes towards preventing pathogenic colonization. The skin is a sensory organ, too, with receptors for detecting heat and cold, touch, pressure, and pain. Source for information on The Integumentary System: UXL Complete Health Resource dictionary. 30 seconds . The nerves of the dermal papillae are used to feel touch, pain, and temperature through the cells of the epidermis. The stratum lucidum is made of several rows of clear, dead keratinocytes that protect the underlying layers. Hair and nails extend from the skin to reinforce the skin and protect it from environmental Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... Join our Newsletter and receive our free ebook: Guide to Mastering the Study of Anatomy. Called corneocytes heat and cold, touch, pain, and associated,! 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