The distinction between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. [web 5][web 6], A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for 'secret teachings' in Asian religions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension[9] and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live",[10][11] often in a context separate from organized religious institutions,[12] such as a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm,[13] personal growth,[14] a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning,[15] religious experience,[16] or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension". These four paths of spirituality are also known in Hinduism outside India, such as in Balinese Hinduism, where it is called Catur Marga (literally: four paths). Author: Kandinsky, Wassily, 1866-1944: Translator: Sadleir, Michael, 1888-1957: Uniform Title: Über das Geistige in der Kunst. [114][115] Important early-20th century Western writers who studied the phenomenon of spirituality, and their works, include William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) and Rudolph Otto, especially The Idea of the Holy (1917), James' notions of "spiritual experience" had a further influence on the modernist streams in Asian traditions, making them even further recognisable for a western audience. [web 1] It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus (soul, courage, vigor, breath) and is related to spirare (to breathe). This text is in the public domain and may be freely reproduced. ][49][50][note 7], The best known form of Islamic mystic spirituality is the Sufi tradition (famous through Rumi and Hafiz) in which a Sheikh or pir transmits spiritual discipline to students.[51]. Catholic spirituality is the spiritual practice of living out a personal act of faith (fides qua creditur) following the acceptance of faith (fides quae creditur). (1987), The Nature of Faith in the Śaṅkaran Vedānta Tradition, Numen, 34(1), pp. They found no discernible health effects from being prayed for by others. Chester: Wiley-Blackwell. Spiritual. It is impossible for us to live and feel, as did the ancient Greeks.” ― Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art This reference gave rise to the distinguishing of two forms of jihad: "greater" and "lesser". Wall was exposed to writers, e.g., James Joyce and George Bernard Shaw; and jazz in this period, all of which influenced his art. [77] In the practice of Hinduism, suggest modern era scholars such as Vivekananda, the choice between the paths is up to the individual and a person's proclivities. It is a spiritual pyramid, advancing and ascending slowly even if it sometimes appears immobile. Concerning the Spiritual in Art By: Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Published in 1911, Kandinsky's book compares the spiritual life of humanity to a pyramid -- the artist has a mission to lead others to the pinnacle with his work. His first book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, was written in 1910 and published only in 1912. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(13), 2130–51. Schleiermacher used the idea of "religious experience" to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. W. Bhavasar and Kiem, Spirituality and Health, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989). [138], During the twentieth century the relationship between science and spirituality has been influenced both by Freudian psychology, which has accentuated the boundaries between the two areas by accentuating individualism and secularism, and by developments in particle physics, which reopened the debate about complementarity between scientific and religious discourse and rekindled for many an interest in holistic conceptions of reality. LibriVox recording of Concerning the Spiritual in Art by Wassily Kandinsky. Kabbalah (literally "receiving"), is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought of Judaism. [citation needed], Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and elements of Asian, especially Indian, religions. The influence of Asian traditions on western modern spirituality was also furthered by the perennial philosophy, whose main proponent Aldous Huxley was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's Neo-Vedanta and universalism,[33] and the spread of social welfare, education and mass travel after World War II. The point of … The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". ... Swedish Wikipedia lists her as part of the New Age Movement, or New Age rörelsen. see). (2010). ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFMcCarroll2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKoenig2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGorsuch1999 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaucier2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHoutman2007 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSnyder2007 (. The Documents of Modern Art 5. Reimpressio: Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Spirituality became increasingly disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul's mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture (i.e., Lectio Divina). Handbook of religious experience (pp.) In 1843 the Senussi Sufi were forced to flee Mecca and Medina and head to Sudan and Libya. MacDonald et al gave an "Expressions of Spirituality Inventory" (ESI-R) measuring five dimensions of spirituality to over 4000 persons across eight countries. It involves initiation into the school, undergoing rituals, and achieving moksha liberation by experiencing union of cosmic polarities. In Dutch: "Een spiritueel mens is iemand die 'overvloediger en dieper dan de anderen' christen is". Deprivation aims to purify the body. Jean Varenne (1976), Yoga and the Hindu Tradition, University of Chicago Press. Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala. Another guru, the honeybee teaches that one must make effort to gain knowledge, a willingness and flexibility to examine, pick and collect essence from different scriptures and sources. Psychobiology of drug-induced religious experience: From the brain 'locus of religion' to cognitive unbinding. Sufis consider themselves as the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. In most general terms, the Sanskrit word yoga stands for spiritual discipline in Hinduism, Jainism, and certain schools of Buddhism. Social bonds available via secular sources (i.e., not unique to spirituality or faith-based groups) might just as effectively raise well-being. D. Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Cultural Psychology, in Anthony Marsella (Series Editor), International and Cultural Psychology, Springer New York, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMichelis2005 (. Psilocybin can occasion mystical type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance Psychopharmacology, 187:268–83. (. [web 2], The term "spirituality" is derived from Middle French spiritualité, from Late Latin "spiritualitatem" (nominative spiritualitas), which is also derived from Latin spiritualis. [6], In the 11th century this meaning changed. [180] (ref) A number of research groups have developed instruments which attempt to measure spirituality quantitatively, including the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS), the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale. Lester Kurtz (Ed. George Feuerstein: "Yoga is not easy to define. Richard King (1999), Indian philosophy: An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, Edinburgh University Press. [web 3], There is no single, widely agreed-upon definition of spirituality. [113] (1870–1966) Vivekananda popularised a modern syncretic Hinduism,[118][115] in which an emphasis on personal experience replaced the authority of scriptures. [web 1], The term "spiritual", matters "concerning the spirit", is derived from Old French spirituel (12c. Fort, A.O. Rochford, E.B. Birmingham AL, Religious Education Press. Laszlo, Ervin, "CosMos:A Co-creator's Guide to the Whole World", Hay House, Inc, 2008. D'Aquili, E.G., & Newberg, A.B. Londinii: Constable and Company Limited. [169][170][171][172] Moreover, experimenters have also successfully induced spiritual experiences in individuals by administering psychoactive agents known to elicit euphoria and perceptual distortions. Some Islamic scholars dispute the authenticity of this reference and consider the meaning of jihad as a holy war to be more important. [80], Different schools of Hinduism encourage different spiritual practices. Both supporters and opponents of this claim agree that past statistical findings are difficult to interpret, in large part because of the ongoing disagreement over how spirituality should be defined and measured. [113] Both western and Asian authors have popularised this notion. Modern spirituality centers on the "deepest values and meanings by which people live". sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaucier2007 (, Azeemi, K.S., "Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. [68][note 9], Jñāna marga is a path often assisted by a guru (teacher) in one's spiritual practice. Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press. And that religion is a communal given, not an individual choice. Home Culture Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Similarly, Aristotle – one of the first known Western thinkers to demonstrate that morality, virtue and goodness can be derived without appealing to supernatural forces – argued that "men create Gods in their own image" (not the other way around). Concerning the Spiritual in Art - Originally published in 1911, Kandinsky compares the spiritual life of humanity to a large triangle similar to a pyramid; the artist has the task and the mission of leading others to the top by the exercise of his talent. The Musar movement is a Jewish spiritual movement that has focused on developing character traits such as faith, humility, and love. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, an 11th-century Islamic scholar, referenced a statement by the companion of Muhammad, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah: The Prophet ... returned from one of his battles, and thereupon told us, 'You have arrived with an excellent arrival, you have come from the Lesser Jihad to the Greater Jihad – the striving of a servant (of Allah) against his desires (holy war). Houston: Plato, 2005. An inner spiritual struggle and an outer physical struggle are two commonly accepted meanings of the Arabic word jihad:[45] The "greater jihad" is the inner struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. Concerning the spiritual in art and painting in particular, 1912.: [A version of the Sadleir translation, with considerable retranslation by Francis Golffing, Michael Harrison and Ferdinand Ostertag]. MindMup 2.0 for Google Drive! Hasidic Judaism, meaning "piety" (or "loving kindness"), is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. Nuh Ha Mim Keller, "How would you respond to the claim that Sufism is Bid'a? Download This eBook. [121], Kees Waaijman discerns four forms of spiritual practices:[122], Spiritual practices may include meditation, mindfulness, prayer, the contemplation of sacred texts, ethical development,[103] Each of the major religious orders of the Catholic Church and other lay groupings have their own unique spirituality – its own way of approaching God in prayer and in living out the Gospel. Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre) who clearly value the non-material, communal and virtuous aspects of life reject this usage of the term "spirituality" as being overly-broad (i.e. [112], Spiritual experiences plays a central role in modern spirituality. Major Asian influences on contemporary spirituality have included Swami Vivekananda[117] (1863–1902) and D.T. Lockwood draws attention to the variety of spiritual experience in the contemporary West: The new Western spiritual landscape, characterised by consumerism and choice abundance, is scattered with novel religious manifestations based in psychology and the Human Potential Movement, each offering participants a pathway to the Self.[100]. Hence spirituality was a sub-domain of religion. David Carpenter, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill. [27][28] 4 December] 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter, and art theorist. In the second part, "About Painting," Kandinsky discusses the psychology of colors, the language of form and color, and the responsibilities of the artist. Contemporary proponents of spirituality may suggest that spirituality develops inner peace and forms a foundation for happiness. [24][note 5], In the 17th and 18th centuries a distinction was made[by whom?] Now, in the same spirit,…, …year he wrote much of Concerning the Spiritual in Art, which converted the aesthetic doctrines of Goethe to the purposes of the new art. Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions,[which?] Stroud, Barry. Sufism or taṣawwuf (Arabic: تصوّف‎) is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. [55], Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God". Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson – "The Principles of Sufism". They are strong adherents to the principal of tolerance, peace and against any form of violence. Concerning the Spiritual in Art - Originally published in 1911, Kandinsky compares the spiritual life of humanity to a large triangle similar to a pyramid; the artist has the task and the mission of leading others to the top by the exercise of his talent. CONCERNING THE SPIRITUAL IN ART BY WASSILY KANDINSKY [TRANSLATED BY MICHAEL T. H. SADLER] Note: This text was originally published in 1911 as Über das Geistige in der Kunst. A spiritual practitioner is known as a yogin (if male) or a yogini (if female). [web 5] Following Schleiermacher,[29] an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. [64][65], Traditionally, Hinduism identifies three mārga (ways)[66][note 8] of spiritual practice,[67] namely Jñāna, the way of knowledge; Bhakti, the way of devotion; and Karma yoga, the way of selfless action. "[85] Guru Nanak described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than a purely contemplative life. It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus (soul, courage, vigor, breath) and is related to spirare (to breathe). [40] The term "spiritual" is now frequently used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed. "The charm of naturalism". Its History and Method", The Spiritual Dynamic in Modern Art : Art History Reconsidered, 1800 to the Present, "Spirituality and Intellectual Honesty with Thomas Metzinger", Association for Research and Enlightenment, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spirituality&oldid=1000480152, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2019, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2011, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2019, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from July 2017, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the term "spirit" is commonly taken as denoting the existence of unseen / otherworldly / life-giving forces; and. The term spiritual has frequently become used in contexts in which the term religious was formerly employed. [91][92][93] and which must be seen with 'the inward eye', or the 'heart', of a human being.[94]. [19], Words translatable as "spirituality" first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages. [88], According to Guru Nanak, the goal is to attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life",[89] the polar opposite to a self-centered existence. Judaism knows a variety of religious observances: ethical rules, prayers, religious clothing, holidays, shabbat, pilgrimages, Torah reading, dietary laws, etc. The Musar movement, first founded in the 19th century by Israel Salanter and developed in the 21st century by Alan Morinis and Ira F. Stone, has encouraged spiritual practices of Jewish meditation, Jewish prayer, Jewish ethics, tzedakah, teshuvah, and the study of musar (ethical) literature.[44]. [101] It often embraces the idea of an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality. Diminishment concerns the repulsement of ego-oriented impulses. Neuroscientists have examined brain functioning during reported spiritual experiences[167][168] finding that certain neurotransmitters and specific areas of the brain are involved. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there is Christ, for Buddhism, Buddha, and in Islam, Muhammad. [103], Within spirituality is also found "a common emphasis on the value of thoughtfulness, tolerance for breadth and practices and beliefs, and appreciation for the insights of other religious communities, as well as other sources of authority within the social sciences."[124]. Evidence for Two Independent Dispositions", "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience", "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion", "Hu Shih: Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China. as the mainstay of spiritual development. (1998), Jīvanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, Sawai, Y. [ kṣetra-jñá ] g. [ yuvādi ], spirituality, nature of the soul Lit. [8] Both theists and atheists have criticized this development.[41][42]. Published in 1911, Kandinsky's book compares the spiritual life of humanity to a pyramid -- the artist has a mission to lead others to the pinnacle with his work. Amal Press. CR Prasad, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill. Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you. Concerning the Spiritual in Art. [108] Ellison and Fan (2008) assert that spirituality causes a wide array of positive health outcomes, including "morale, happiness, and life satisfaction.". (...). Nevertheless, many humanists (e.g. [37], After the Second World War, spirituality and theistic religion became increasingly disconnected,[24] and spirituality became more oriented on subjective experience, instead of "attempts to place the self within a broader ontological context. [89] Nanak talks further about the one God or akal (timelessness) that permeates all life[90]). While impressions are based on an external reality that serves as a starting point, improvisations and compositions depict images emergent from the unconscious, though composition is developed from a more formal point of … rather than simply classifying spirituality and science as non-overlapping magisteria. Buddhist practices are known as Bhavana, which literally means "development" or "cultivating"[58] or "producing"[59][60] in the sense of "calling into existence. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [71] Karma marga is the path of one's work, where diligent practical work or vartta (Sanskrit: वार्त्ता, profession) becomes in itself a spiritual practice, and work in daily life is perfected as a form of spiritual liberation and not for its material rewards. 18–44, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 08:07. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic. [30] A second, related influence was Anthroposophy, whose founder, Rudolf Steiner, was particularly interested in developing a genuine Western spirituality, and in the ways that such a spirituality could transform practical institutions such as education, agriculture, and medicine.[31][32]. Novi Eboraci: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0-486-23411-8. [web 5] They also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians. The study results and interpretation highlighted the complexity and challenges of measurement of spirituality cross-culturally. It is a spiritual pyramid, advancing and ascending slowly even if it sometimes appe… [37] This universalism was further popularised, and brought back to the west as neo-Vedanta, by Swami Vivekananda. 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